Glossary

  • AAPManagement: American Academy of Pain Management
  • AAPMed: American Academy of Pain Medicine
  • AANP: American Association of Nurse Practitioners
  • AAPA: American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • Abuse Deterrence Technology: The introduction of limits or barriers in a drug formulation that are designed to make abuse or product manipulation less attractive or more difficult.
  • ACPA: American Chronic Pain Association
  • Alcohol-Induced Dose Dumping: Alcohol-induced dose dumping, or the associated intake of alcoholic beverages together with oral controlled-release opioid formulations, may result in an uncontrolled and immediate drug release.12
  • Appropriate Disposal: Prescription drugs may be disposed of through community-sponsored take-back programs. If not available, environmentally friendly disposal should be undertaken per Office of Drug Control National Policy recommendations.15
  • Appropriate Storage: Keep medicines hidden or locked to avoid access by family or friends. Never share opioids with others.15
  • Appropriate Use: Take medications only as prescribed, and make sure you understand the risks. Gain awareness of inappropriate use and take precautions to avoid missteps.14,15
  • APS: American Pain Society
  • ASPMN: American Society for Pain Management Nursing
  • Aversion: It is defined by the Food & Drug Administration as “substances can be combined to produce an unpleasant effect if the dosage form is manipulated prior to ingestion or if a higher dosage than directed is used.”5
  • Chronic Pain: It is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “a persistent pain that is not amenable, as a rule, to treatments based upon specific remedies or to the routine methods of pain control.”8
  • DEA: Drug Enforcement Administration
  • Diversion: According to the CDC, drug diversion is when prescription medicines are obtained or used illegally.36
  • Dose Dumping: Dose dumping is the rapid release of the entire dose of a drug in a shorter time frame than intended.24
  • ER Opioids: Extended-release opioids
  • Extractability & Solubility Studies: Extractability and solubility studies assess the ease of opioid extraction from the intact and manipulated product, compared with extraction from comparator product(s) in similar states using commonly available solvents.5
  • FDA: Food & Drug Administration
  • HCP: Healthcare Professional
  • In Vitro Study: Refers to a study which examines and utilizes a whole, living organism in its natural form.
  • In Vivo Study: Refers to a study which utilizes partial organisms outside of the living body (like in a test tube).
  • IR Opioids: Immediate-release Opioids
  • Misuse: Using the prescription drug for a reason other than for which it was prescribed11
  • ONS: Oncology Nursing Society
  • Opioid Antagonist: An opioid antagonist can be added to interfere with, reduce, or defeat the euphoria (or high) associated with abuse. For example, a drug may be formulated such that the antagonist is not clinically active when swallowed but becomes active if the product is not used in its original form, such as being crushed, injected, or snorted.5
  • Opioid Risk Evaluation & Mitigation Strategies: The FDA requires a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) program. The program is designed to make available training for healthcare professionals who prescribe opioid analgesics on proper prescribing practices. This program provides educational materials to prescribers and patients on the appropriate use of these pain medications.16
  • PCPC: Pain Care for Primary Care
  • Physical & Chemical Barriers: Physical and chemical barriers can change the physical form of an oral drug, making it less responsive to abuse. Physical barriers can prevent chewing, crushing, cutting, grating, or grinding; and chemical barriers resist extraction of the opioid using common solvents like water, alcohol, or other organic solvents.5
  • Prescription Drug Abuse: Prescription drug abuse is broadly defined as the intentional use of a medication without a prescription; in a way other than as prescribed; or for the experience or feeling it causes.25
  • Prescription Drug Monitoring Program: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are in place in several states to detect and reduce the risk of diversion and abuse of prescription drugs at the retail level. These state programs allow for the collection and analysis of prescription data.17
  • SAMHSA: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration