As part of the pain care community, we understand that we all have an active role to play to help advance responsible pain management and deter abuse.13 Pain Matters is committed to providing the resources and guidance needed to mitigate opioid abuse and misuse.
In a recent statement on prescription opioid abuse, the FDA underscored the need for various stakeholders to work together to invest in strategies and responsible approaches that deter or mitigate abuse, while preserving access to pain medications for the patients that need them most.13 Click on the stakeholder groups below to learn more.
The FDA has identified three key ways prescribers can help curtail the US opioid epidemic 12 – by obtaining adequate training in opioid therapy, knowing the content of the most current opioid drug labels, and educating patients about the appropriate use of opioids, their potential risks, and proper disposal techniques.
Various advocacy groups offer educational programs to engage healthcare providers and antidrug coalitions in the promotion and distribution of public education materials. Many people who abuse or misuse opioids have obtained them without a prescription, so understanding and following appropriate use, storage, and disposal instructions could help reduce the risk of abuse and diversion. Resources are available.
The FDA encourages the ongoing study of abuse deterrence technologies for new prescription opioid medications. Teva Pharmaceuticals takes the responsibility to help mitigate the risks of abuse seriously and is leading education and abuse-mitigation efforts, working to develop educational resources, and partnering with a variety of stakeholders. Please register and follow us on Facebook to be notified when new information and resources become available.
Due to the complex issues surrounding opioid abuse and misuse, various national and state programs and policies have been put in place to help mitigate the epidemic. These simultaneously prevent abuse, addiction, and diversion, while allowing and supporting the legal use of prescription drugs by those who need them.4 Abuse mitigation programs and policies include:
Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are in place in 49 states to help detect and reduce the risk of diversion and abuse of prescription drugs at the practice and retail levels. These state programs allow for the collection and analysis of prescription data.17 Click here to see the benefits of proactive reporting. SHOW MORE
Proactive reporting through the use of PDMPs can:18
The Drug Enforcement Administration’s Schedules of Controlled Substances classify controlled substances into five categories according to the accepted medical use and the potential for abuse.19 Schedule I drugs are considered the most dangerous, while Schedule V drugs are seen to have the least risk for abuse.19 Prescription opioid medications generally fall under Schedules II and III.19 The DEA plays an important role in mitigating abuse and diversion of opioids by enforcing the controlled substance laws and regulations in the US.19 Click here to see a list of the DEA drug scheduling categories. SHOW MORE
DEA Drug Scheduling Categories19
|I||No accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Schedule I drugs are the most dangerous drugs of all the drug schedules with potentially severe psychological or physical dependence.|
|II||Drugs with a high potential for abuse, less abuse potential than Schedule I drugs, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous|
|III||Drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence. Abuse potential is less than Schedule I and II, but greater than Schedule IV.|
|IV||Drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence|
|V||Drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV, containing limited quantities of certain narcotics.|
SCHEDULE & DESCRIPTION
In addition to classifying potentially dangerous substances by schedule, the DEA's Office of Diversion Control requires physicians who intend to prescribe scheduled (controlled) medications to register in the state where they obtained a valid medical license.20 The goal of this initiative is to detect and investigate diversion of controlled substances from legitimate sources while ensuring an adequate and uninterrupted supply for legitimate medical, commercial, and scientific needs.20
Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) are requirements set by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pharmaceutical manufacturers to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks for certain drugs.16 Click here to learn more about the components of REMS that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry.16 SHOW MORE
There are several components of REMS that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, including one or more of the following:16